Political System

Administrative division of Malaysia:

Malaysia consists of (13) states as follows:

  • nine states ruled by sultans, which are:

    Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu, Kedah, Kelantan, Ipoh, Perak, Johor, Negeri Sembilan.

  • other four States ruled by governors appointed by the king with a recommendation from the Prime Minister.

    Malacca, Sabah, Sarawak and Penang.

  • In addition, there are federal that don’t belong to any state:

Kuala Lumpur, the federal capital

 Petra Jaya, the administrative capital

 Labuan Island, a free trade zone.

People and Politics

Several political parties are Working in the Malaysian political scene in accordance with a democratic system written within the constitution, the most important parties, according to their political allegiances are the following:

First: the government parties:

  • United Malays National Organization (UMNO): a party that leads the power in the country and consists of Malays only, which is the largest political parties in the country.
  • Malaysian Chinese Association: It is the second largest party in the country and consists of Chinese only.
  • Malaysian Indian Congress: The party is in third class in terms of size and shape, it consists of Malaysian Indians only.

The three above mentioned parties, in addition to other smaller parties, formed the National Front (Barisan) which is leading the country since its independence.

Second: the opposition parties:

The opposition parties in Malaysia formed an alliance under the name (People's pact):

  • Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
  • Democratic Action Party
  • People's Justice Party

Third: The Parliament

Malaysian Parliament consists of 222 members, while the number of seats obtained by each of the two alliances in the last legislative elections in 2013 are as follows:

  • Ruling National Front 133 seats.
  • Peoples pact 89 seats.